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66                       THE FATE OF MAN

social groups is eliminated, when the unification
of a people has been accomplished and there are
no social groups oppressed by the state, then the
people and the state are equivalent, and the state
is finally deified. It is not absolutely necessary
that the people should express their will in the
form of a liberal democracy with a parliament;
it may be expressed in the form of an authoritarian
democracy with a leader endowed with supreme
power. Thus we may see that it is possible to
have a leader with dictatorial powers and at the
same time retain the old democracy. This is the
case with Roosevelt: he is evoked by the need
for radical social reforms, which always demand
a strongly individual authority, initiative and

In essence Mussolini says the same thing as
Marx. Marx teaches that the conflict between
personality and society existed only because of
the conflict between classes. When class dis-
appears, when the exploiting class, and hence
class conflict, has been abolished, no conflict
between personality and society will remain.
For Mussolini the state is the absolute, for Marx
it is society. But both maintain the same prin-
ciple, both deny the tragic and eternal conflict
between personality and tie state or society, both
deny the inalienable freedom of personality. The
truth is just the reverse. The conflict of class